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目前所说的古籍善本,主要包括刻本、墨迹本、碑帖、印谱、信札以及其他文献。刻本是使用雕版技术印制的书籍,其顶峰期的宋元刻本在流通市场上已 廖廖无几,继而由明清及民国时期的精刻本引领风潮;墨迹本为文人稿本、手抄本等,一般存世量稀少,且多为孤本;碑帖、印谱、信札、文人墨迹等,是近年来古 籍拍场上重要的品种,其中明清名家或现当代名人信札尤受欢迎

善本最初的概念是指经过严格校勘、无讹文脱字的书本。印刷术产生前,书籍大都是写本。把原稿或别本认真缮写下来,经过与原文校核无误,就成为善本。唐以后,雕版印刷术出现,书籍开始出现“版本”的概念。不同版本书籍收录文献多寡、校勘精劣程度各不相同,就有了足本和残本、精本和劣本的差别;书籍版本出现早晚、珍稀程度不同,就有了古本和今本、孤本和复本的差别。善本的内涵也比原来更扩大了,以后许多学者对善本的概念不断总结归纳,最后形成了现在通用的善本“三性”、“九条”说。 善本的“三性”指书籍应具备较高的历史文物性、学术资料性和艺术代表性。善本的“九条”主要包括:元代及元代以前刻印抄写的图书;明代刻、抄写的图书;清代乾隆以前流传较少的刻本、抄本;太平天国及历代农民革命政权所刊印的图书;辛亥革命前,在学术研究上有独到见解,或有学派特点的稿本以及流传很少的刻本、抄本;辛亥革命前,反映某一时期、某一领域或某一事件资料方面的稿本以及流传很少的刻本、抄本;辛亥革命以前的名人学者批校、题跋或过录前人批校而有参考价值的印本、抄本;在印刷术上能反映古代印刷术发展的各种活字印本、套印本或有精校版画、插画的刻本;明代的印谱、清代的集古印谱、名家篆刻印谱的钤印本,有特色的亲笔题记等。善本的时代下限,现在一般确定在清乾隆六十年。

目前市场上出售古籍书,较为盛行,但唐、宋、元、明等朝代的古籍书已是凤毛麟角,难以见到,故大多数均为清代或者民国时期的书籍。对于如何鉴别清代版本古籍书的问题,根据笔者多年来的一些实践体会,有如下几点以供参考。一、对清代书籍的版别要有所认识,其大致可分内府刻本、官刻本、私刻本、坊刻本等四大类别。内府刻本主要指武英殿刻本;官刻本主要指各省、府、州、县学校、书院刻本;私刻本主要指私人刻书;坊刻本指书坊刻本,如苏州扫叶山房,扬州文官堂、宁波群玉山房,安徽屯溪茹古堂、金陵奎璧斋等等。二、对清代书籍的特征要有所掌握清初刻本多有明代遗风,字形长方、横细竖粗。如顺治刻本《甲申集》、《梅村集》。康熙以后多为硬体字和软体字。硬体字即仿宋体;软体字即写体,如《板桥集》、《绿窗遗稿》、《杨太后诗》等。三、对清代书籍的纸张要有所了解。其多为开化纸、棉纸、黄榜纸、毛边纸、毛太纸等,颜色呈暗黄,纸质柔软耐久。四、对清代书籍的版式要有所辨别。一般多为左右双边,也有四周双边、单边。多白口、少黑口,装帧大多为线装。总之,对清代版本书籍的鉴定方法除上述几方面外,还应注意书的作者及成书年代是否相符,也是鉴定清代古籍书是否属真本或仿本的重要一环。

此套本卷古籍书籍是有明代学者唐完庚编写的中国地理风水书籍,为清代复刻版,清代朱兰谷,朱清罗鉴定,恒文堂鉴藏。距今已有将近300多年的历史。如今保存依旧十分完整,全卷字体图画依旧清晰可见,更难为可见的是此套古籍为一整套,独本易得,整套难寻,十分具有收藏和研究价值!

At present, the rare books of ancient books mainly include engraved books, ink books, inscriptions, seals, letters and other documents. Engraving is a book printed by engraving technology, and there are few engraving in the circulation market in the peak period of Song and Yuan Dynasties, and then the trend is led by the fine engraving in the Ming and Qing Dynasties and the Republic of China Ink books are literati manuscripts, manuscripts, etc., which are generally rare and mostly orphan books; Inscriptions, seals, letters, literati ink, etc., are important varieties in the auction field of ancient books in recent years, among which letters from famous Ming and Qing Dynasties or modern and contemporary celebrities are particularly popular

The original concept of rare books refers to books that have been strictly collated, without errors or words. Before printing came into being, books were mostly written. Write down the manuscript or another one carefully, and after checking it with the original one, it will become a rare one. After Tang Dynasty, engraving printing appeared, and the concept of "edition" appeared in books. Different versions of books have different documents and different collations, so there are differences between the full version and the residual version, the refined version and the inferior version; Book versions appear sooner or later, with different degrees of rarity, so there are differences between ancient and present versions, and between orphan and duplicate versions. The connotation of rare books has expanded more than before, and many scholars have continuously summarized the concept of rare books since then, and finally formed the common theory of "three natures" and "nine articles" of rare books. The "three natures" of rare books mean that books should have high historical relics, academic data and artistic representation. The "nine articles" of rare books mainly include: books engraved and copied in Yuan Dynasty and before Yuan Dynasty; Books engraved and copied in the Ming Dynasty; Before Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty, there were few manuscripts and

manuscripts; Books printed by the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and the peasant revolutionary regimes of past dynasties; Before the Revolution of 1911, there were unique opinions in academic research, manuscripts with school characteristics, and few manuscripts and manuscripts; Before the Revolution of 1911, manuscripts reflecting the data of a certain period, a certain field or an event, as well as manuscripts and transcripts that were rarely circulated; Before the Revolution of 1911, celebrities and scholars approved proofreading, inscriptions or over-recorded prints and transcripts with reference value approved by predecessors; In printing, it can reflect the development of ancient printing, such as all kinds of movable type prints, overprints or engravings with fine correction prints and illustrations; Seal prints of Ming Dynasty, ancient seal prints of Qing Dynasty, seal cutting seal prints of famous artists, distinctive handwritten inscriptions, etc. The lower age limit of rare books is now generally determined in the sixty years of Qianlong in Qing Dynasty.

At present, ancient books sold in the market are popular, but ancient books in Tang, Song, Yuan and Ming Dynasties are rare and hard to see, so most of them are books in Qing Dynasty or Republic of China. According to the author's practical experience for many years, there are the following points for reference. First, we should know the editions of books in the Qing Dynasty, which can be roughly divided into four categories, namely, the inner government engraving, the official engraving, the private engraving and the square engraving. Neifu engraving mainly refers to the engraving of Wuying Hall; Official engraving mainly refers to the engraving of schools and colleges in provinces, prefectures and counties; Private engraving mainly refers to private engraving;

The workshop engravings refer to the bookshop engravings, such as Suzhou Sawyeshan Room, Yangzhou Civilian Hall, Ningbo Qunyushan Room, Anhui Tunxi Rugu Hall, Jinling Kuibizhai and so on. Second, we should have a good grasp of the characteristics of books in the Qing Dynasty. Most of the early Qing dynasty engravings have the legacy of the Ming Dynasty, and the fonts are long, thin and thick. Such as Shunzhi's engraving Jiashen Collection and Meicun Collection. After Kangxi, they were mostly hard words and soft words. Hardware words are imitation of Song Style; Soft words are written styles, such as Banqiao Collection, Green Window Legacy, and Empress Yang Poetry. Third, we should know something about the paper of books in Qing Dynasty. Most of them are developed paper, cotton paper, yellow paper, frilled paper, Maotai paper, etc. The color is dark yellow, and the paper is soft and durable. Fourth, we should distinguish the layout of books in Qing Dynasty. Generally, it is left and right bilateral, and there are also four sides bilateral and unilateral. There are more white mouths and less black mouths, and the binding is mostly thread-bound. In a word, in addition to the above aspects, we should also pay attention to whether the author and the year of the book are consistent, which is also an important part of identifying whether the ancient books in Qing Dynasty are genuine or imitation.

This set of ancient books is written by Tang Wangeng, a scholar of Ming Dynasty. It is a replica of Qing Dynasty, appraised by Zhulan Valley and Zhu Qingluo in Qing Dynasty, and collected by Hengwen Hall. It has a history of nearly 300 years. Today, the preservation is still very complete, and the whole volume of font pictures is still clearly visible. What is even more difficult to see is that this set of ancient books is a complete set, which is easy to obtain and difficult to find, and has great collection and research value!

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