目前所说的古籍善本，主要包括刻本、墨迹本、碑帖、印谱、信札以及其他文献。刻本是使用雕版技术印制的书籍，其顶峰期的宋元刻本在流通市场上已 廖廖无几，继而由明清及民国时期的精刻本引领风潮;墨迹本为文人稿本、手抄本等，一般存世量稀少，且多为孤本;碑帖、印谱、信札、文人墨迹等，是近年来古 籍拍场上重要的品种，其中明清名家或现当代名人信札尤受欢迎
At present, the rare books of ancient books mainly include engraved books, ink books, inscriptions, seals, letters and other documents. Engraving is a book printed by engraving technology, and there are few engraving in the circulation market in the peak period of Song and Yuan Dynasties, and then the trend is led by the fine engraving in the Ming and Qing Dynasties and the Republic of China Ink books are literati manuscripts, manuscripts, etc., which are generally rare and mostly orphan books; Inscriptions, seals, letters, literati ink, etc., are important varieties in the auction field of ancient books in recent years, among which letters from famous Ming and Qing Dynasties or modern and contemporary celebrities are particularly popular
The original concept of rare books refers to books that have been strictly collated, without errors or words. Before printing came into being, books were mostly written. Write down the manuscript or another one carefully, and after checking it with the original one, it will become a rare one. After Tang Dynasty, engraving printing appeared, and the concept of "edition" appeared in books. Different versions of books have different documents and different collations, so there are differences between the full version and the residual version, the refined version and the inferior version; Book versions appear sooner or later, with different degrees of rarity, so there are differences between ancient and present versions, and between orphan and duplicate versions. The connotation of rare books has expanded more than before, and many scholars have continuously summarized the concept of rare books since then, and finally formed the common theory of "three natures" and "nine articles" of rare books. The "three natures" of rare books mean that books should have high historical relics, academic data and artistic representation. The "nine articles" of rare books mainly include: books engraved and copied in Yuan Dynasty and before Yuan Dynasty; Books engraved and copied in the Ming Dynasty; Before Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty, there were few manuscripts and
manuscripts; Books printed by the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and the peasant revolutionary regimes of past dynasties; Before the Revolution of 1911, there were unique opinions in academic research, manuscripts with school characteristics, and few manuscripts and manuscripts; Before the Revolution of 1911, manuscripts reflecting the data of a certain period, a certain field or an event, as well as manuscripts and transcripts that were rarely circulated; Before the Revolution of 1911, celebrities and scholars approved proofreading, inscriptions or over-recorded prints and transcripts with reference value approved by predecessors; In printing, it can reflect the development of ancient printing, such as all kinds of movable type prints, overprints or engravings with fine correction prints and illustrations; Seal prints of Ming Dynasty, ancient seal prints of Qing Dynasty, seal cutting seal prints of famous artists, distinctive handwritten inscriptions, etc. The lower age limit of rare books is now generally determined in the sixty years of Qianlong in Qing Dynasty.
At present, ancient books sold in the market are popular, but ancient books in Tang, Song, Yuan and Ming Dynasties are rare and hard to see, so most of them are books in Qing Dynasty or Republic of China. According to the author's practical experience for many years, there are the following points for reference. First, we should know the editions of books in the Qing Dynasty, which can be roughly divided into four categories, namely, the inner government engraving, the official engraving, the private engraving and the square engraving. Neifu engraving mainly refers to the engraving of Wuying Hall; Official engraving mainly refers to the engraving of schools and colleges in provinces, prefectures and counties; Private engraving mainly refers to private engraving;
The workshop engravings refer to the bookshop engravings, such as Suzhou Sawyeshan Room, Yangzhou Civilian Hall, Ningbo Qunyushan Room, Anhui Tunxi Rugu Hall, Jinling Kuibizhai and so on. Second, we should have a good grasp of the characteristics of books in the Qing Dynasty. Most of the early Qing dynasty engravings have the legacy of the Ming Dynasty, and the fonts are long, thin and thick. Such as Shunzhi's engraving Jiashen Collection and Meicun Collection. After Kangxi, they were mostly hard words and soft words. Hardware words are imitation of Song Style; Soft words are written styles, such as Banqiao Collection, Green Window Legacy, and Empress Yang Poetry. Third, we should know something about the paper of books in Qing Dynasty. Most of them are developed paper, cotton paper, yellow paper, frilled paper, Maotai paper, etc. The color is dark yellow, and the paper is soft and durable. Fourth, we should distinguish the layout of books in Qing Dynasty. Generally, it is left and right bilateral, and there are also four sides bilateral and unilateral. There are more white mouths and less black mouths, and the binding is mostly thread-bound. In a word, in addition to the above aspects, we should also pay attention to whether the author and the year of the book are consistent, which is also an important part of identifying whether the ancient books in Qing Dynasty are genuine or imitation.
This set of ancient books is written by Tang Wangeng, a scholar of Ming Dynasty. It is a replica of Qing Dynasty, appraised by Zhulan Valley and Zhu Qingluo in Qing Dynasty, and collected by Hengwen Hall. It has a history of nearly 300 years. Today, the preservation is still very complete, and the whole volume of font pictures is still clearly visible. What is even more difficult to see is that this set of ancient books is a complete set, which is easy to obtain and difficult to find, and has great collection and research value!